Is E-Discovery Eliminating the Benefits of Arbitration?

The broad scope of Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 26, coupled with electronic discovery and aggressive trial counsel, have increased litigation costs exponentially. (See Arbitration's E-Discovery Conundrum, by Thomas J. Aldrich). As a result, corporations and their legal counsel have recently turned to arbitration in an attempt to escape the huge expansion of document discovery in federal civil litigation. Id. However, as litigation discovery techniques used in federal court trickle down to the arbitration process, the benefits of arbitration - cost-efficiency and speed - have all but disappeared. Id. In an effort to preserve the benefits of arbitration, while balancing the need to discover documents with the cost and burden involved with producing them, many arbitral institutions have developed comprehensive guidelines for dealing with discovery and resolving disputes. Id. In his article entitled "Arbitration's E-Discovery Conundrum", Thomas J. Aldrich provides a rundown of the discovery guidelines propounded by arbitral institutions in an effort to "stem the tide of runaway discovery in arbitration." Id.  Read on to see a summary of his findings.

The International Institute for Conflict Prevention and Resolution

The arbitration committee for the International Institute for Conflict Prevention and Resolution has proposed guidelines for preventing overzealous discovery in arbitral proceedings. Section 1(a) of the protocol reads: "[a]rbitration is not for the litigator who will 'leave no stone unturned…' [Z]ealous advocacy must be tempered by an appreciation for the need for speed and efficiency… [D]isclosure should be granted only as to those items that are relevant and materials for which a party has a substantial, demonstrable need." Id. The guidelines state that the disclosure of electronic documents shall follow the general principles of narrow focus and balancing cost, burden and accessibility with the need for disclosure. "Production of e-materials from a wide range of users or custodians, which is both costly and burdensome, should not be permitted without a showing of extraordinary need." Id. 


The guidelines also contain a list of various "levels" of disclosure from which the parties may select. Mr. Aldrich summarizes the levels or "modes" of disclosure succinctly when he states:

"Mode A, the narrowest scope, provides for no prehearing disclosure other than copies of printouts of e-documents to be presented in support of each party's case. Mode B provides that each side produce e-documents maintained by an agreed limited number of designated custodians, that the disclosure be limited to e-documents created from the date of signing the arbitration agreement to the date of filing the request for arbitration, and that production be limited to e-documents from primary storage facilities. In other words, no documents from backup servers, backup tapes, cell phones, personal digital assistants or voicemails will be produced. And no information obtained through forensic methods will be admitted in evidence." Id.

"Mode C provides for a larger number of specified custodians and a wider time period than Mode B, and also provides that the parties may agree to allow documents obtained through forensic methods to be admitted. Finally, Mode D provides for disclosure of electronic information regarding nonprivileged matters relevant to any party's claim or defense, subject to limitations of reasonableness, duplicativeness and undue burden. It is a broad level of disclosure similar to that required or permitted under FRCP Rule 26." Id. 


The Chartered Institute of Arbitrators


The article also discusses the Chartered Institute Protocol for E-Disclosure in Arbitration, which was put into effect in October 2008. See Chartered Institute Protocol for E-Disclosure. The purpose of the Protocol is "(1) to achieve early consideration of disclosure of documents in electronic form ('e-disclosure') in those cases where early consideration is necessary and appropriate for the avoidance of unnecessary cost and delay; (2) to focus the parties and the tribunal on e-disclosure issues for consideration, including the scope and conduct of e-disclosure (if any); and (3) to address e-disclosure issues by allowing the parties to adopt this protocol as part of their agreement to arbitrate a potential or existing dispute." Id. The Protocol delineates what is necessary for "early consideration;" the necessary contents of a request for disclosure of electronic documents; how electronic documents are to be produced; and the procedure and allocation of costs associated with electronic disclosure of documents. Id. 


International Centre for Dispute Resolution


Mr. Aldrich also discusses the rules for the exchange of information promulgated by the ICDR, the international arm of the American Arbitration Association. See ICDR Guidelines for Arbitrator Concerning Exchanges of Information. The Guidelines provide that "while arbitration must be a fair process, care must also be taken to prevent the importation of procedural measures and devices from different court systems, which may be considered conducive to fairness within those systems, but which are not appropriate to the conduct of arbitrations in an international context and which are inconsistent with an alternative form of dispute resolution that is simpler, less expensive, and more expeditious." Id. Under the Guidelines, the only documents to be exchanged are those on which a party relies. The Guidelines specifically address electronic documents, and state:


"When documents to be exchanged are in electronic form, the party in possession of such documents may make them available in the form (which may be paper copies) most convenient and economical for it, unless the tribunal determines, on application and for good cause, that there is a compelling need for access to the documents in a different form. Requests for documents maintained in an electronic form should be narrowly focused and structured to make searching for them as economical as possible. The Tribunal may direct testing or other means of focusing and limiting any search." Id. 




While it is obvious that some arbitral institutions are taking steps to regulate discovery in arbitration proceedings, others lag behind. Even with these protocols, it is up to the parties and the arbitrators to enforce them, "stem the tide of runaway e-discovery in arbitration" and preserve the benefits associated with alternative dispute resolution. For a full discussion of these issues, click here to read "Arbitration's E-Discovery Conundrum" by Thomas J. Aldrich.

New Rule 5.2 Formalizes Privacy Protections for E-Filed Documents

The Advisory Committee on the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure recently created a new Rule that is at least tangentially related to e-discovery.  The new Rule 5.2 addresses privacy concerns for documents e-filed in federal court.  The new rule provides guidance on what information should be redacted, what may be filed under seal and how to file a single "reference list" containing all confidential information redacted from other documents.  Notably, a party waives the right to the protection of the Rule if it files its own confidential information without redaction.  While some courts, such as  the Eastern District of Wisconsin, had already adopted similar rules on a local basis, the Committee has now made them applicable to all federal civil courts.  The new Rule went into effect on December 1, 2007.


A Lesson in Style: Renumbering the E-Discovery Rules

As part of the hilariously named "Style Project," the Advisory Committee on the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure has renumbered several Federal Rules relating to e-discovery.  I thought the Rules were elegant before, but now, WOW!  I need a cold shower.  A handy chart summarizing the rule changes can be found here.